The situation of women in modern INDIA, is not that much improved in comparison with other western developed countries. Even countries which got independence at same time of INDIA (ex.-CHINA) have done better in this field.
Better education is not leading to better job opportunities, marriage prospects or freedom of movement even privacy. According to INDIAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SURVEY(IHDS) of 2011-12 70% girls between 15 to 18 years old are studying, only some margin (~5%) behind boys. Even they frequently outperform boys in board exams, in medical exams, in engineering, in MBA, even in IAS (one of the toughest) exams.
In spite of rising education and rising aspirations, women face complexities and constrains in labour markets and social norms. Data shows that more than 68% of urban women are unemployed despite having good education.
Illiterate women usually goes to work in workplace, most of them are housemaid, daily labours. This work participation sharply drops for woman with primary and secondary education. And little bit rise in girls with college education. This relationship is correct even after when we take into account income of other family members, their social background and place of residence. This is not expected for a country after 70 years of independence.
Theories of HUMAN CAPITAL suggest that, more education, more training will make women with greater skills and greater participation in workforce.
There could one reason for decline in higher or moderate level of women workforce—that is, girls with higher education try to marry in rich families which make them to withdraw from workforce. Many of these cases girl don’t want to have a job or don’t want to join job because of family issue. After 12th or 10th jobs for girls are very rare. In the field of mechanic or driver or customer care services or sales representatives their opportunities are not enough. Educated women’s main employment options are limited to nurse or teacher or in the field of corporate sectors. Other than these jobs aren’t suitable for them according to their families for social norms.
33% of JAPANESE woman remains single after middle age (30-34 years of age). Even SRI LANKAN women are also more or less 11% remains single after that age. Less than 3% of INDIAN women remains single, most of them because of divorce or death of partners. Marriage remains the ultimate fate of INDIAN girls.
Girls education in INDIA, mainly used for their marriage purpose. This is used with their caste, family income, family status for advertise them to find a groom with rich background and status. In western countries women marries man with same level of status, but in INDIA sometimes, many girls marry partners with lower level in comparison with them.
Abigail Adams (former US first lady) once said that, “If particular care and attention is not paid to the, ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion”.
#METOO movement and the protest after Sabarimala verdict shows that INDIAN women are ready to form a rebellion. This was in dormant phase. Now it is breaking the wall.